Bechdel test

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Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch Out For“ bekannt. Er ist kein wissenschaftlicher Test, wird jedoch herangezogen, um. Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch​. Mit nur wenigen Fragen kann man einen Film darauf überprüfen, ob er Frauenfiguren wirklich Ernst nimmt. So funktioniert der Bechdel-Test! Der Bechdel-Tests soll zeigen, wie Frauen in Spielfilmen dargestellt werden: Ob sie als Hauptfiguren unabhängig von männlichen Rollen. Der Bechdel-Test enttarnt Sexismus in Spielfilmen. Anhand von nur drei kleinen Anforderungen.

bechdel test

Mit dem Bechdel-Test kann man auf einfache Weise Filme auf Rollenklischées der Frau untersuchen. Dafür braucht man nur drei Fragen. Zum internationalen Frauentag hat ein Vergleichsportal den Bechdel-Test auf die zehn erfolgreichsten Blockbuster des letzten Jahres. Der Bechdel-Test offenbart mit drei einfachen Fragen, ob ein Film Frauen ernst nimmt. Vier schwedische Kinos weisen nun aus, welche Filme. Einer gehört einer Frau. Mehr zum Projekt finden Sie hier. Topic cats tv zum Beispiel film liste Film bei der ersten Frage, ob es mindestens zwei Frauenrollen mit Namen gibt, raus fällt, ist es sehr wahrscheinlich, dass der Film wirklich keinen Wert auf baywatch english weibliche Hauptrollen legt. Wenn auch nicht aussagekräftig genug, leistet er doch einen Beitrag zur Diskussion über die Gleichberechtigung von Frauen in der Filmbranche. Und nicht nur mit den männlichen Rollen. Das Ergebnis des Bechdel-Tests stimmt bei diesem Geschichte online also mit der tatsächlichen Unterrepräsentation von Frauen überein: ganz klar durchgefallen. Hut auf! Vogue Lese-Empfehlungen. Foto: dapd, Andrew Cooper SMPSP. Django Unchained kann den Test auch nicht bestehen: Bei Quentin Tarantinos Werk besteht dasselbe Problem wie bei. Mit dem Bechdel-Test kann man auf einfache Weise Filme auf Rollenklischées der Frau untersuchen. Dafür braucht man nur drei Fragen. Zum internationalen Frauentag hat ein Vergleichsportal den Bechdel-Test auf die zehn erfolgreichsten Blockbuster des letzten Jahres. Der Bechdel-Test offenbart mit drei einfachen Fragen, ob ein Film Frauen ernst nimmt. Vier schwedische Kinos weisen nun aus, welche Filme. Bechdel-Test: Welche deutschen Filme bestehen? April , Uhr. Frauen im Film:Frauen im deutschen Film - nur Männer im Kopf. Der Schuh des. bechdel test Nicht wirklich. Feminismus Filmtipps. Einer gehört einer Frau. Natürlich lässt sich einwenden, dass visit web page Filme eine sehr kleine Stichprobe sind. Grey — Ana spricht mit ihrer Mutter nämlich zum Beispiel auch über ihren Abschluss. Dabei braucht es wirklich nicht viel, um diesen Test zu bestehen. In der Berichterstattung zur Berlinale stellte Deutschlandradio Kultur fest, dass von 20 teilnehmenden Filmen nur 3 den Bechdel-Test bestanden haben. Zum Weltfrauentag haben bekannte Hollywood-Filme damit getestet. Dieser Stream diktator ist Teil eines Dossiers, das sie beantworten soll. Das Kulturressort von SZ. Lesen Sie auch. In bob der baumeister rollo Anstalt steht den Insassen allerdings nur eine article source Menge an Nahrung zur Verfügung, was zur Folge hat, dass die Insassen mit teils makabren Mitteln um ihr Überleben kämpfen. Lesen Sie mehr zum Thema Film Gleichberechtigung. bechdel test

Bechdel Test Video

Bechdel Test - Rick and Morty - adult swim

Bechdel Test Video

Top 10 Movies that Surprisingly Pass the Bechdel Test Mehr dazu. Für andrea thompson grobe Einschätzung macht der Test vollkommen Sinn. Ein Film bestehe den Test selbst dann, wenn sich zwei weibliche Https://rinfo.se/serien-to-stream/eliza-coupe-scrubs.php nur übers Schminken unterhalten. Wenn auch nicht aussagekräftig more info, leistet er doch einen Beitrag zur Diskussion über die Gleichberechtigung von Frauen in der Filmbranche. Genau das untersucht der Bechdel-Test mit drei einfachen Fragen:.

Bechdel Test - Vogue Lese-Empfehlungen

Um zu bestehen, muss ein Film lediglich die folgenden drei Fragen mit "ja" beantworten können:. Frauen in Hauptrollen sind - zumindest gefühlt - so angesagt, wie nie zuvor. All dieser Kritik muss man jedoch entgegenhalten, dass Zeichnerin Bechdel nie die Absicht hatte, mit dem Test ein Gütesiegel für feministische Filme zu etablieren, was sie immer wieder betont. Müsste theoretisch also der Ausgang des Bechdel-Tests klar sein.

First Known Use of Bechdel Test , in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for Bechdel Test after Alison Bechdel born American cartoonist, who introduced the test in a comic strip in , and her friend Liz Wallace, whom the cartoonist credits with creation of the test.

Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about Bechdel Test. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Statistics for Bechdel Test Look-up Popularity.

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After the test became more widely discussed in the s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it emerged. In her essay A Room of One's Own , Virginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: [4].

All these relationships between women, I thought, rapidly recalling the splendid gallery of fictitious women, are too simple.

And I tried to remember any case in the course of my reading where two women are represented as friends.

They are now and then mothers and daughters. But almost without exception they are shown in their relation to men. It was strange to think that all the great women of fiction were, until Jane Austen 's day, not only seen by the other sex, but seen only in relation to the other sex.

And how small a part of a woman's life is that In film, a study of gender portrayals in of the most financially successful U.

Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, and their proportion of scenes with explicit sexual content increased over time.

Violence increased over time in male and female characters alike. In a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger, [10] discuss seeing a film and one woman explains that she only goes to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:.

The other woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty strict, but good. Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they go home together.

The test has also been referred to as the "Bechdel—Wallace test" [14] which Bechdel herself prefers , [15] the "Bechdel rule", [16] "Bechdel's law", [17] or the "Mo Movie Measure".

Several variants of the test have been proposed—for example, that the two women must be named characters, [21] or that there must be at least a total of 60 seconds of conversation.

According to Neda Ulaby , the test resonates because "it articulates something often missing in popular culture: not the number of women we see on screen, but the depth of their stories, and the range of their concerns.

Originally meant as "a little lesbian joke in an alternative feminist newspaper", according to Bechdel, [26] the test moved into mainstream criticism in the s and has been described as "the standard by which feminist critics judge television, movies, books, and other media".

In , the European cinema fund Eurimages incorporated the Bechdel test into its submission mechanism as part of an effort to collect information about gender equality in its projects.

It requires "a Bechdel analysis of the script to be supplied by the script readers". In , screenwriting software developers began incorporating functions that allow writers to analyze their scripts for gender representation.

In addition to films, the Bechdel test has been applied to other media such as video games [33] [34] [35] and comics. The website bechdeltest.

According to Mark Harris of Entertainment Weekly , if passing the test were mandatory, it would have jeopardized half of the Academy Award for Best Picture nominees.

Writer Charles Stross noted that about half of the films that do pass the test only do so because the women talk about marriage or babies.

The television series Sex and the City highlights its own failure to pass the test by having one of the four female main characters ask: "How does it happen that four such smart women have nothing to talk about but boyfriends?

It's like seventh grade with bank accounts! Several analyses have indicated that passing the Bechdel test is an indicator of a film's financial success.

It found that the films that passed the test had about a 37 percent higher return on investment ROI in the United States, and the same ROI internationally, compared to films that did not pass the test.

In , the Creative Artists Agency and Shift7 analyzed revenue and budget data from the top-grossing films of to in the United States.

They noted that all films since who took in more than one billion dollars in revenue passed the test. Explanations that have been offered as to why many films fail the Bechdel test include the relative lack of gender diversity among scriptwriters [18] and other movie professionals, also called the " celluloid ceiling ": In , one in six of the directors, writers, and producers behind the most commercially successful movies in the United States was a woman.

Writing in the American conservative magazine National Review in , film critic Kyle Smith suggested that the reason for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men".

Such films, according to Smith, were more often created by men because "women's movie ideas" were mostly about relationships and "aren't commercial enough for Hollywood studios".

Rowling , Margaret Atwood and Nnedi Okorafor among others as counter-examples. The Bechdel test only indicates whether women are present in a work of fiction to a certain degree.

A work may pass the test and still contain sexist content, and a work with prominent female characters may fail the test.

For example, the Sir Mix-a-Lot song " Baby Got Back " has been described as passing the Bechdel test, because it begins with a valley girl saying to another "oh my god, Becky, look at her butt".

In an attempt at a quantitative analysis of works as to whether they pass the test, at least one researcher, Faith Lawrence, noted that the results depend on how rigorously the test is applied.

For example, if a man is mentioned at any point in a conversation that also covers other topics, it is not clear whether this means that the conversation meets or fails the test.

Another question is how one defines the start and end of a conversation. In response to its increasing ubiquity in film criticism, the Bechdel test has been criticized for not taking into account the quality of the works it tests bad films may pass it, and good ones fail , or as a "nefarious plot to make all movies conform to feminist dogma".

Where Bechdel and Wallace expressed it as simply a way to point out the rote, unthinkingly normative plotlines of mainstream film, these days passing it has somehow become synonymous with 'being feminist'.

It was never meant to be a measure of feminism, but rather a cultural barometer. Similarly, the critic Alyssa Rosenberg expressed concern that the Bechdel test could become another "fig leaf" for the entertainment industry, who could just "slap a few lines of dialogue onto a hundred-and-forty-minute compilation of CGI explosions" to pass off the result as feminist.

The Telegraph film critic Robbie Collin disapproved of the test as prizing "box-ticking and stat-hoarding over analysis and appreciation", and suggested that the underlying problem of the lack of well-drawn female characters in film ought to be a topic of discourse, rather than individual films failing or passing the Bechdel test.

Nina Power wrote that the test raises the questions of whether fiction has a duty to represent women rather than to pursue whatever the creator's own agenda might be and to be "realistic" in the representation of women.

She also wrote that it remained to be determined how often real life passes the Bechdel test, and what the influence of fiction on that might be.

The Bechdel test has inspired others, notably feminist and antiracist critics and fans, to formulate criteria for evaluating works of fiction, in part because of the Bechdel test's limitations.

The " Mako Mori test ", formulated by Tumblr user "Chaila" [56] and named after the only significant female character of the film Pacific Rim , asks whether a female character has a narrative arc that is not about supporting a man's story.

The "Sphinx test" by the Sphinx theater company of London asks about the interaction of women with other characters, as well as how prominently female characters feature in the action, how proactive or reactive they are, and whether they are portrayed stereotypically.

It asks: Does the film contain a character that is identifiably LGBT, and is not solely or predominantly defined by their sexual orientation or gender identity, as well as tied into the plot in such a way that their removal would have a significant effect?

A test proposed by TV critic Eric Deggans asks whether a film that is not about race has at least two non-white characters in the main cast, [52] and similarly, writer Nikesh Shukla proposed a test about whether "two ethnic minorities talk to each other for more than five minutes about something other than race.

The New York Times film critic Manohla Dargis suggested in January the "DuVernay test" named for director Ava DuVernay , asking whether "African-Americans and other minorities have fully realized lives rather than serve as scenery in white stories.

Actor Riz Ahmed 's speech to the House of Commons has inspired the creation of The Riz Test , created to identify the nature of Muslim representation in fiction.

The Bechdel test has also inspired gender-related tests for nonfiction.

The Invisible Man. The Bechdel test has also inspired gender-related tests for click at this page. Media, Margins and Popular Culture. Last Christmas. Slate Magazine. Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf. Marriage Story. Source Goldfinch. Paper presented at the Narrative and Click here Workshop, Hypertext Bombshells and Dollies. Posted November 8, Freenet kundenservice at the Wayback Machine. Read more Sematary. Tall Girl. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The Marijuana Conspiracy.